Nearly 7 months after Russia’s invasion of Ukraine began, the conflict has gone through several phases. Some of the most prominent are:
Start of the attack
-February 24: Three days after the Kremlin recognized separatist Donetsk and Luhansk as independent republics, Russia bombed several Ukrainian cities in an operation in Donbass (east).
The attack began with missile strikes on various military installations in Kiev, Kharkiv and Dnipro.
A Russian landing party lands at Odessa.
-February 27 -Russian troops enter Kharkov.
Capture of Kherson and Siege of Mariupol
– March 1: Russia enters Kherson on the Black Sea and continues its siege of Mariupol, a strategic port in the Donbass.
– March 3: Four Russian landing ships depart for Odessa.
– March 4: Russia attacks southern Europe’s largest nuclear power plant, Zaporizhia, and five days later it takes control of Chernobyl.
– Bombardment and siege of a residential area in Kyiv, Kharkiv and Chernigov in the north continues.
Offensive against Kharkov, Odessa and Lviv
– March 7: Russia attacks the enclaves of Kharkov, Sumy (northeast), and Odessa (south) with missiles and artillery, as the third round of negotiations begins.
– March 9: Russia bombs a mother and child hospital in Mariupol.
– March 13: Eight Russian missiles hit a military base in Lviv, bordering Poland.
– Russian troops fired more than 30 missiles against a base near the Polish border in Irpin, on the outskirts of Kiev, killing at least 35 people.
– March 21: Eight people were killed in a bombing at a shopping center in Kyiv, which Moscow said was a warehouse by a defused rocket launcher.
Recovery of Irpin and liberation of Kyiv
– March 28: Ukraine recaptures Irpin and avoids siege of the capital.
– March 29: Russia announces it is scaling back its attacks on Kiev and Chernigov to facilitate an agreement with Ukraine, which recognizes neutrality.
– March 31: NATO assures that Russian troops are not withdrawing but regrouping in the east. Meanwhile, fighting near Kiev in Chernigov and bombing in Donbass continues.
– April 1: Russian troops withdraw from Kiev
Condemnation of Bucha Massacre and Chemical Weapons in Mariupol
– April 4: More than 400 civilian bodies are discovered in Bucha on the outskirts of Kiev after Russian troops withdraw. The international community condemned the massacre and the Kremlin described it as “baseless”.
– April 8: 50 people, including 5 children, die in an attack on the Kramatorsk train station, where thousands tried to leave the country.
– April 11: Pro-Russian militias seize the port of Mariupol.
– April 12: Ukraine condemns the possible use of chemical weapons in Mariupol by pro-Russian militias in Donetsk.
– April 14: Russia says its flagship missile cruiser “Moskva” sank in the Black Sea while being towed in a storm, while Ukraine maintains it was hit by two cruise missiles. The death toll is not known.
– April 17: Russian bombing of Chernihiv kills at least 53.
– April 19: Moscow announces the second phase of the war to liberate Donbass.
-April 21: Russia claims it has captured Mariupol, although it acknowledges pockets of resistance at the Azovstal steelworks.- April 25: Russia announces a new ceasefire to evacuate civilians from Azovstal.
– 1 May: Ukraine evacuates the first hundred civilians from the steel mill, and on 7 May women, children and the elderly and only resistance fighters remain.
– May 17: Ukraine abandons fighting at Azovstal.
– May 19: 771 Ukrainian soldiers leave the steel mill that already houses 1,730 soldiers who have “surrendered”, according to Moscow.
Final attack on Donbas and siege of Sverodonetsk
– May 25: Russia accelerates its offensive in Donbas towards the strategic enclave of Severodonetsk.
– May 30: Russians enter Severodonetsk to end control of Lugansk.
– June 11: Russia maintains a blockade of Ukrainian forces at the Azot plant in Severodonetsk in an attempt to repeat the strategy at the Azovstal steelworks in Mariupol and break the will of the defenders of the last Ukrainian stronghold in Lugansk.
-June 13: Ukraine confirms that all Severodonetsk bridges have been destroyed.
– June 21: New Russian attack on nitrogen plant, which is resisted.
– June 25: Russia fully occupies Severodonetsk after the withdrawal of Ukrainian troops.
– June 27: At least 18 people are killed when a Russian missile hits a shopping center in Kremenchuk.
Siege of Lysichansk and capture of Lugansk
-July 1: Eighteen people are killed in a missile strike in Odessa as Russia lays siege to Lysychansk, the last Ukrainian-held base in Lugansk.
-July 3: Russia considers taking Lisychansk and all of Luhansk with it. Ukrainian troops have left the area.
-July 16: Russia escalates offensive to crosshair Sievers in Donetsk
Southern Ukraine, a new war front
– July 20: Bombing continues in southern Ukraine, particularly Dnipropetrovsk near Crimea.
-July 22: Ukraine and Russia agree to create a safe maritime corridor for grain exports.
-July 24-28: Ukrainian troops advance toward Kherson, days after bombing bridges over the Dnieper River. -1 August: The first ship with a cargo of grain departs the commercial port of Odessa on the Black Sea.
-August 8: Ukraine accuses Russia of more than 27,000 war crimes.
-August 13: Heavy Russian fighting in Donetsk and Zaporizhia. Both sides accuse each other of attacking nuclear power plants.
-August 19: Putin and Macron support sending IAEA mission to Zaporizhia.
-August 22: Russia accuses Ukrainian secret services of killing Daria Duguin on the 20th, the daughter of Alexander Duguin, the leader of the neo-Eurasianist movement considered close to the Kremlin.
-August 26: Ukraine rejoins Zaporizhia, a day after it was completely disrupted by a fire registered in one of the wells of the plant occupied by Russian troops, before the arrival of the IAEA mission.
Ukraine launched a counterattack
-August 29: Ukraine launches large-scale Kherson counteroffensive.
-August 30: Ukraine accuses Russia of “stealing between 500,000 and 800,000 tons of grain”.
-September 1: The IAEA visits Zaporizhia and establishes a “continuous” presence at the plant.
-September 14: Ukrainian forces have liberated 8,500 square kilometers, 388 towns and 150,000 people in eastern regions since September 6, the Ukrainian government reported.
-September 16: Mass grave. There are a total of 440 unidentified graves in the town of Izium after Ukraine regained control from Russian occupation.
-September 19: Russian troops attack the industrial estate of a nuclear power plant in southern Ukraine with missiles, according to Ukrainian state company Energotom.
-September 20: The parliaments of the self-proclaimed People’s Republic of Donetsk and Luhansk call a referendum on unification with Russia from September 23 to 27.
-September 21: Vladimir Putin announces “partial demobilization” in a televised message to the nation, accusing the West of seeking Russia’s destruction.